Thyroid Medication Options

Click here to listen to a reading of this blog:

This post may contain affiliate links, to find out more information, please read my disclosure statement. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.

Originally published on 24th March 2016 
Last updated on 21st October 2021

Did you know that there are multiple medication options for hypothyroidism? 

Are you on the right one for you?

Could a change in medication change your life?

What’s The Difference in Options?

To understand the different options, let’s start by looking at the thyroid hormones you body produces (or at least, would do if it had a well-functioning thyroid!):

  • T1: This is thought to play a role in keeping your thyroid function in check and is also believed to influence heart health.
  • T2: This likely plays a role in converting T4 to T3. It also likely has an impact on metabolism and burning fat and is effective in increasing liver metabolism and that of the heart.
  • T3: Referred to as the ‘active hormone’, T3 has the greatest effect on the body’s energy levels and overall health and well-being. It is more active than T4. T3 is said to be linked to mental health, ability to coping with stress and emotional stability. T4 is referred to as the ‘storage hormone’ and its main function is to convert to T3, both active T3 and Reverse T3.
  • T4: This is a ‘pro-hormone’ (as a precursor of T3, having minimal hormonal effect itself). 
  • Calcitonin: This is secreted from the thyroid when blood levels are high in Calcium. It acts to lower levels of Calcium in the blood and stops the release of more Calcium from your bones into the blood. Because of this, it’s said to be effective in the prevention of osteoporosis.

Your body produces all of these hormones itself but some of the T4 produced by the thyroid is also converted into that very important T3 and T3 is the active thyroid hormone; the one that gives you energy and removes most hypothyroid symptoms.

So, you can see why it may be beneficial to take a thyroid medication that replaces all or at least the two most important (T3 and T4) of these thyroid hormones in the case of hypothyroidism. However, there are many different options for thyroid medication, which are explained below.

Worth noting: calcitonin isn’t well absorbed orally, so may not have much benefit in NDT medications, and T1 and T2 are made outside of the thyroid gland, so are unlikely to be contained in NDT medications. [1]

T4-only Medication

Most mainstream trained doctors believe that we only need to replace T4, as we only require tiny amounts of T1, T2 and Calcitonin anyway, and our body will convert some of the T4 to T3, to replace that thyroid hormone. That seems simple enough, right? Not so.

While some people do do well on synthetic T4-only meds, such as Levothyroxine and Synthroid, many other thyroid patients fail to convert the T4 in to T3, so when they take T4-only meds, they still feel unwell.

A conversion issue can be caused by an enzyme called iodothyronine deiodinase that is either deficient or not compatible for some people and is important in the activation and deactivation of thyroid hormones. T4 is converted into T3 by deiodinase activity.  A problem with this can therefore cause conversion issues, where TSH can look ‘fine’, as well as Free T4, but with a low Free T3 and continued hypothyroid symptoms and development of other health conditions (such as mental health and heart/blood pressure problems).

Another cause could be adrenal fatigue (though it is more accurately referred to as hypothalamic-pituitary axis dysfunction), or vitamin deficiencies such as iron or selenium. By addressing these, you may fix the conversion problem, but many other people simply have a problem converting and don’t know why. So simply, they will likely benefit from taking a thyroid medication that gives them direct T3, instead of relying on their body to convert the T4 they put into T3 for them.

study in 2018 showed that T4-only medication Levothyroxine was associated with a lower quality of life in those with Hypothyroidism.

However, many thyroid patients really do respond well to T4 meds such as Levothyroxine, and this is good.

It is worth knowing that Levothyroxine is also available in a liquid form for those who find it difficult to swallow tablets.

T3-only Medication

Instead of being on T4-only, you could be on synthetic T3-only medication which skips that conversion stage. But as you have no T4 (the storage hormone) to convert to T3 for you, you may have to dose it more often, such as 3 or even 4 times a day. Still, many thyroid patients do feel an improvement over being on T4-only medication alone.

Related information: Updated RMOC Guidance – Prescribing of Liothyronine

T3 and T4 Combination

There is also the option of taking both synthetic T4 and T3 together, to try and mimic more closely what the thyroid gland would be putting out, if it was working properly. Thyroid patients who have tried this do often report much better results than using T4-only on its own, as it gives you that direct T3 and doesn’t rely on your body converting it. 


Natural Desiccated Thyroid (NDT) is most often dried porcine (pig) thyroid gland (bovine over the counter NDT does exist) and gives you both T3 and T4. It is disputed whether they also include small amounts of T1, T2 and Calcitonin. [1]

However, it is worth noting that brands of NDT do not appear to state inclusion of these on their packaging, whereas included amounts of T3 and T4 are stated.

Some people dose NDT twice a day, taking half their dose in the morning and the other half mid-afternoon. Others take it in one go in the morning. Different patients may experience different levels of benefits (if at all) from either.

NDT removes the need to rely on the body converting T4 to T3.

Stop The Thyroid Madness cover all the different brands and ingredients of NDT, here.


A study published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism in 2013, titled Desiccated thyroid extract compared with levothyroxine in the treatment of hypothyroidism: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, compared NDT medication to T4-only medication in the treatment of hypothyroidism. The results showed that almost half (48.6%) of patients preferred NDT, with 18.6% preferring T4-only, and 32.9% having no preference.

This study indicates that NDT can be superior to synthetic T4-only medication for many hypothyroid patients.

If you’re vegetarian, please see this article.

Compounded Thyroid Medication

Compounded thyroid medication offers the advantage of being made without any fillers, which can be useful if you do not tolerate them well, such as gluten or lactose. The amounts of T3 and T4 are usually similar to NDT, but doctors can order for the amount of each to be adjusted to make the exact dosage your own body needs. It is essentially more personalised. This can be the answer for those who do not feel well on synthetic T3, T4 or NDT medications.

Most compounded thyroid medications are ‘immediate release’ versions, which means that they release the active medication immediately after taking, but compounding pharmacists are also able to make sustained release versions, where the medication is released more gradually; continuously throughout the day.

Related Article: I Don’t Want to Take Thyroid Medication. Can I Take Something ‘Natural’ Instead?

So, What Should You Take?

If you’re currently doing well on your thyroid medication, then you don’t need to do anything regarding your medication regimen.

But you may have read the above and thought “Brilliant. How do I change to T3-containing medication?”

Well, the hardest part can be trying to get your doctor to prescribe anything other than T4-only medicine.

The vast majority of conventional doctors have been trained to stick to T4 synthetics, so many patients these days are unfortunately having to go private to see a doctor who will prescribe other medication options or even self-source it online, which carries many risks, just to get the medication they need to function like a normal human being.

However, I am not suggesting that NDT is the only way forward, as some thyroid patients do do well on T4-only meds or one of the other options, but the problem is that doctors need to be treating patients based on their own individual needs, symptoms and reaction to medication.

What is the Best Thyroid Medication?

The best thyroid medicine is the one that works best for that particular person.

This should include T3 and NDT.

There is an excellent paper called Functional and Symptomatic Individuality in the Response to Levothyroxine Treatment which shows that everyone is individual and has different thyroid treatment needs. [2] 

Another paper titled Time for a reassessment of the treatment of hypothyroidism concluded

It appears that we are witnessing a consequential historic shift in the treatment of thyroid disease, driven by over-reliance on a single laboratory parameter TSH. The focus on biochemistry rather than patient symptom relief should be re-assessed. A joint consideration together with a more personalized approach may be required to address the recent surge in patient complaint rates.” [3]

If you are not feeling well despite being on thyroid medication, it could be because your test results are in the “normal” range but not at the “optimal” level for you. 

Please leave your experiences of different thyroid medication options in the comments below. To read about mine, please see here.

Related Article: Signs Your Thyroid Medication May Need Adjusting

You can click on the hyperlinks in the above post to learn more and see references to information given.


[1] Tired Thyroid: From Hyper To Hypo To Healing – Breaking The TSH Rule by Barbara S. Lougheed



If you found this article beneficial, please take a moment to share it so we can help others get better with hypothyroidism and Hashimoto's, whilst also raising awareness.

12 thoughts on “Thyroid Medication Options

  1. I’ve Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. I’m generally okay on 100mg Levothyroxine. I do tend to sleep, on average, 8 to 10 hours a day. My right hand sometimes has a shake, don’t know if that’s related.
    So along with the Hashi’s I have Primary Hyperparathyroidism and Psoriasis. Also Asthma/COPD/Emphysema if that’s relevant. But does the Primary Hyperparathyroidism and Psoriasis have any bearing on my Hypothyroidism?

  2. I love your blogs
    Im 28 now
    I’am born without a thyroid gland
    My mother find that out when i was 3 months old.

    I must say I have alot of hyperthyroidism& hypothyroidism symptoms.
    And your blogs learn me alot about my illness
    Thank you x

  3. A breath of fresh air reading about other “hypo” patients and their struggles. I sure can relate! Have a great Endo who is trying to help me, frequent blood tests and full panels, at my request. I asked for T4 and T3 to see if it helped with my fatigue…. on 88 mcg levo and 5mcg Cytomel which I was on a yr ago after a thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy. Hard to regulate levels since then ….frustrating….tried Armor Thyroid to no avail also….. Dr says I am swithching too frequently so we need to wait full 8 weeks between changes. In the meantime , sooo fatigued and winded…..up for trying a new combo or NDT…..

  4. Hi is NDT available without the pig hormones? Is there something else that I could try?
    I’ve been on a very high does of throyxine
    175mg for 20 years, by the way I’m 5 feet 2 and petite build but the weight is creeping up and the low moods not sure if it’s the menopause I’m 52 and feel I need to try something else?

  5. Thank you for all of your posts. I had read this and looked it up this am. I switched a month ago to the NDT. I had severe dyspnea on the Synthroid. I am only on 1/4 grain and may try the twice a day dosing before jumping to once daily 1/2 grain. I am extremely sensitive to all medications. Your blog is a daily read and I have your book on my Kindle. Thanks for all that you are doing.

  6. what is the best way to get gp to change medication…. I am on 50mcg of levothyroxine have been for just over one year now… the last 6 months have been very hard I have been dealing with severe fatigue and exhaustion….. please help, also your book arrives tomorrow

  7. Hi Rachel, I met you at a Mind Carniball in September. Please could you advise me.

    After my recent blood test for thyroid function, my doctor says I need to reduce my thyroxine. I’m beside myself. I have CFS and am really struggling. Is there any action I can take like trying to get an appointment with an endocrinologist? I really don’t know where to turn. Sorry to bother you.

    Many thanks in advance.

    Kind regards

    Dianne Cope

    1. Hi Dianne – sorry to hear this. I remember you telling me about your fatigue and can imagine the idea of lowering your thyroid medication is scary when you already feel so unwell. What are your free t3 and t4 levels looking like? Hopefully the doctor is lowering the meds based on this and not TSH alone? A referral to an endocrinologist (which your GP can do) may help, but they do tend to favour thyroxine and TSH again. Have you explored a functional doctor? I have a the diagnosis of CFS too (from an endocrinologist) but it ‘disappeared’ once I started seeing a functional medicine practitioner who had me implement more than just thyroid medication alone.

  8. I am waiting for the first news article, and am going to explore all the ways I can to find more information about Hashimoto’s disease, I was diagnosed with. I take 2 meds and still feel terrible. Thank you for this article.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.