Informational Posts

Thyroid Medication Options

Thyroid Medication Options
Originally published on 24th March 2016 

Last updated on 30th September 2022

Did you know that there are multiple medication options for hypothyroidism? 

Are you on the right one for you?

Could a change in medication change your life?

What’s The Difference in Options?

To understand the different options, let’s start by looking at the thyroid hormones you body produces (or at least, would do if it had a well-functioning thyroid!):

  • T1: This is thought to play a role in keeping your thyroid function in check and is also believed to influence heart health.
  • T2: This likely plays a role in converting T4 to T3. It also likely has an impact on metabolism and burning fat and is effective in increasing liver metabolism and that of the heart.
  • T3: Referred to as the ‘active hormone’, T3 has the greatest effect on the body’s energy levels and overall health and well-being. It is more active than T4. T3 is said to be linked to mental health, ability to coping with stress and emotional stability. T4 is referred to as the ‘storage hormone’ and its main function is to convert to T3, both active T3 and Reverse T3.
  • T4: This is a ‘pro-hormone’ (as a precursor of T3, having minimal hormonal effect itself). 
  • Calcitonin: This is secreted from the thyroid when blood levels are high in Calcium. It acts to lower levels of Calcium in the blood and stops the release of more Calcium from your bones into the blood. Because of this, it’s said to be effective in the prevention of osteoporosis.

Your body produces all of these hormones itself but some of the T4 produced by the thyroid is also converted into that very important T3 and T3 is the active thyroid hormone; the one that gives you energy and removes most hypothyroid symptoms.

So, you can see why it may be beneficial to take a thyroid medication that replaces all or at least the two most important (T3 and T4) of these thyroid hormones in the case of hypothyroidism. However, there are many different options for thyroid medication, which are explained below.

Worth noting: calcitonin isn’t well absorbed orally, so may not have much benefit in NDT medications, and T1 and T2 are made outside of the thyroid gland, so are unlikely to be contained in NDT medications. [1]

An Instagram post I shared in 2021 about my medication experience:

T4-only Medication

Conventional / mainstream medicine feels that we only need to replace the thyroid hormone T4 with hypothyroidism, since we only require small amounts of T1, T2 and Calcitonin anyway, and our body will convert some of the T4 to T3, to replace that thyroid hormone. That seems simple enough, right?

Not always.

While some people do do well on synthetic T4-only medications, such as Levothyroxine and Synthroid, many other thyroid patients fail to convert the T4 into enough T3, so when they take T4-only meds, they still feel unwell.

Levothyroxine for Hypothyroidism

A conversion issue can be caused by an enzyme called iodothyronine deiodinase that is either deficient or not compatible for some people and is important in the activation and deactivation of thyroid hormones. T4 is converted into T3 by deiodinase activity.  A problem with this can therefore cause conversion issues, where TSH can look ‘fine’, as well as Free T4, but with a low Free T3 and continued hypothyroid symptoms and development of other health conditions (such as mental health and heart/blood pressure problems).

Another cause could be “adrenal fatigue (though it is more accurately referred to as hypothalamic-pituitary axis dysfunction), or vitamin deficiencies such as iron or selenium. By addressing these, you may address the conversion problem, but many other people simply have a problem converting and don’t know why. So, they will likely benefit from taking a thyroid medication that gives them direct T3, instead of relying on their body to convert enough T4 into T3.

study in 2018 showed that T4-only medication Levothyroxine was associated with a lower quality of life in those with Hypothyroidism.

However, many thyroid patients really do respond well to T4 meds such as Levothyroxine, and this is good. If you’re one of these people, then you may not feel the need to explore or trial other medication options. However, if you start to develop new symptoms and complaints or feel increasingly unwell, then  keeping in mind that other options are out there can be really useful.

It is worth knowing that Levothyroxine is also available in a liquid form for those who find it difficult to swallow tablets.

Levothyroxine injections are also available, though typically reserved for those experiencing life threatening myxedema coma. If you’re not absorbing oral Levothyroxine, it may be worth discussing injections with your doctor.

T3-only Medication

Instead of being on T4-only, you could also be prescribed a synthetic T3-only medication which skips the conversion stage. But as you have no T4 (the storage hormone) to convert to T3 for you, you may have to dose it more often, such as 3 or even 4 times a day.

Still, many thyroid patients do feel an improvement over being on T4-only medication alone, however, this medication doesn’t address low T4 levels and can be tricky to dose and keep on top of, requiring blood tests more often.

Liothyronine was found to improve hypothyroid symptoms and quality of life among women who experienced residual symptoms while undergoing treatment with levothyroxine, according to the results of a study published in Frontiers in Endocrinology.

Related information: Updated RMOC Guidance – Prescribing of Liothyronine

T3 and T4 Combination

There is also the option of taking both synthetic T4 and T3 together, to try and mimic more closely what the thyroid gland would be putting out, if it was working properly.

Thyroid patients who have tried this do often report much better results than using T4-only on its own, as it gives you that direct T3 and doesn’t rely on your body converting it. 


Natural Desiccated Thyroid (NDT) medication is most often dried porcine (pig) thyroid gland (bovine over the counter NDT does exist) and gives you both T3 and T4. It is disputed whether they also include small amounts of T1, T2 and Calcitonin. [1]

However, it is worth noting that brands of NDT do not appear to state inclusion of these on their packaging, whereas included amounts of T3 and T4 are stated.

Natural Desiccated Thyroid (NDT) contains porcine thyroid gland (though limited bovine brands are found over the counter), available on prescription in the UK on a named-patient basis (though often isn’t easy to get), as well as meeting the guidelines of the US Pharmacopeia.

NDT medications are available in most countries through a doctor or medical professional. However, some thyroid patients take to self-sourcing over the counter brands (which can be very risky).

Armour Thyroid Medication

NDT is a medication and should ideally be prescribed and managed by a doctor wherever possible. Many thyroid patients mistaken it for a ‘supplement’ but it needs to be dosed correctly, with full thyroid panel testing conducted regularly too.

Some people dose NDT twice a day, taking half their dose in the morning and the other half mid-afternoon. Others take it in one go in the morning. Different patients may experience different levels of benefits (if at all) from taking it either way.

NDT removes the need to rely on the body converting T4 to T3.


A study published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism in 2013, titled Desiccated thyroid extract compared with levothyroxine in the treatment of hypothyroidism: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, compared NDT medication to T4-only medication in the treatment of hypothyroidism. The results showed that almost half (48.6%) of patients preferred NDT, with 18.6% preferring T4-only, and 32.9% having no preference.

This study indicates that NDT can be superior to synthetic T4-only medication for many hypothyroid patients.

If you’re vegetarian, please see this article concerning options.

NDT has been used to treat hypothyroidism for over a hundred years. Interesting history about its use is mentioned in various books, and I’ve covered it all in great detail here.

NDT and T4 Combination

Seen less often is the prescribing of NDT and Levothyroxine together, however, this is the combination I am on at the time of updating this article.

My body (and thyroid levels Free T3 and Free T4) responded to NDT alone well, for several years, until the birth of my first child in 2020, after which it would optimise my Free T3 levels, but leave Free T4 at the bottom of the range. If I were to keep increasing my NDT in this situation, I would end up very overmedicated, so my doctor offered a small amount of Levothyroxine alongside the NDT (the brand I’m on is Armour Thyroid).

Armour and Levothyroxine Together

Although controversial, I have benefitted hugely from this combination as the Levothyroxine raised my Free T4 to optimal levels, alongside an optimal Free T3. It works in a similar way to the synthetic T3 + synthetic T4 combo.

Some online sources may claim that this combo drives up Reverse T3 levels or exacerbates adrenal dysfunction – I’ve experienced neither of these and have only felt well on this combination for the last two years. There is also a lack of hard evidence behind these claims, so do keep in mind that different people and different bodies can respond differently to different medication types. What is most important is that a responsible doctor is managing these medications and testing you often enough to keep dosage correct for your needs.

Compounded Thyroid Medication

Compounded thyroid medication offers the advantage of being made without any fillers, which can be useful if you do not tolerate them well, such as gluten or lactose. The amounts of T3 and T4 are usually similar to NDT, but doctors can order for the amount of each to be adjusted to make the exact dosage your own body needs. It is essentially more personalised. This can be the answer for those who do not feel well on synthetic T3, T4 or NDT medications.

Most compounded thyroid medications are ‘immediate release’ versions, which means that they release the active medication immediately after taking, but compounding pharmacists are also able to make sustained release versions, where the medication is released more gradually; continuously throughout the day.

Related Article: I Don’t Want to Take Thyroid Medication. Can I Take Something ‘Natural’ Instead?

Update as of September 2022: Compounding of thyroid medication has been suspended or ‘banned’ by the FDA. Thyroid patients are trying to upturn this by emailing at [email protected]

So, Which Medication Should You Be On?

If you’re currently doing well on your thyroid medication, then you don’t need to do anything regarding your medication regimen.

But you may have read the above and thought “Brilliant. How do I change to T3-containing medication?”

Well, the hardest part can be trying to get your doctor to prescribe anything other than T4-only medicine.

The vast majority of conventional doctors have been trained to stick to prescribing T4 synthetics, so many patients these days are unfortunately having to go private to see a doctor who will prescribe other medication options or even self-source it online, which carries many risks, just to get the medication they need to function like a normal human being.

What is the Best Thyroid Medication?

The best thyroid medicine is the one that works best for that particular person.

There is an excellent paper called Functional and Symptomatic Individuality in the Response to Levothyroxine Treatment which shows that everyone is individual and has different thyroid treatment needs. [2] 

Another paper titled Time for a reassessment of the treatment of hypothyroidism concluded

It appears that we are witnessing a consequential historic shift in the treatment of thyroid disease, driven by over-reliance on a single laboratory parameter TSH. The focus on biochemistry rather than patient symptom relief should be re-assessed. A joint consideration together with a more personalized approach may be required to address the recent surge in patient complaint rates.” [3]

If you are not feeling well despite being on thyroid medication, it could be because your test results are in the “normal” range but not at the “optimal” level for you. 

A note on brands and generics:

One brand of thyroid medication is not necessarily better than another – it depends on what works for you. Some people can be allergic or sensitive to binders or fillers in certain brands, or feel well on one and feel symptoms come back when given a generic substitute. If you feel well on a particular brand and type, make sure this is always stated on your prescription and that the pharmacy knows this too.

Please leave your experiences of different thyroid medication options in the comments below. To read about mine, please see here.

Related Articles:
Signs Your Thyroid Medication May Need Adjusting
What to Expect When You Change Thyroid Medication Dose

You can click on the hyperlinks in the above post to learn more and see references to information given.


[1] Tired Thyroid: From Hyper To Hypo To Healing – Breaking The TSH Rule by Barbara S. Lougheed



About Author

Rachel Hill is the highly ranked and multi-award winning thyroid patient advocate, writer, speaker and author behind The Invisible Hypothyroidism. Her thyroid advocacy work includes writing articles, authoring books, producing her Thyroid Family email newsletters and speaking on podcasts and at events about the many aspects thyroid disease affects and how to overcome these. She is well-recognised as a crucial and influential contributor to the thyroid community and has a large social media presence. Her bestselling books include "Be Your Own Thyroid Advocate" and "You, Me and Hypothyroidism".


  • Nancy
    February 1, 2024 at 1:52 am

    how do i get a prescription for Armour? I need a good endo there is none i could find.

  • Caleb John
    February 18, 2023 at 1:28 pm

    Thank you for such a clear article. I am reading it over again.

  • Lisa
    October 12, 2022 at 2:41 pm

    Hi, I am new here. Just recently diagnosed with hypothyroidism & started on levothyroxine 50 one a day. I’ve been sick for so many years & I’m at the end of my rope! I’ve only been on this medication for 7 days & I’m praying my body responds. I am not sleeping in between running to the bathroom every 2-3 hours day & night plus I go from painful freezing cold to a fiery furnace of what seems like a hot flash & sometimes it’s hot flash then freezing cold. I’m freezing cold & soaking wet & I’m changing clothes and my bedding. I noticed that every time I urinate it brings this symptom on & so many other things trigger this particular issue. I do have the other symptoms as well so I’m feeling so sick & I have zero support… I have no body to talk to or help and I’m in a horrible place. If anyone reads this, thank you for taking the time. Any kind of advice or tips would be extremely appreciated!!! Thank you.

  • Laurie
    September 2, 2022 at 5:26 pm

    This is a tough one. I had Graves. Had to have my thyroid irradiated. I take 125mcg Synthroid. My problem is this. If we were to have some upheaval in the world, a severe lockdown, a war , something unexpected, what could you do if you ran out of your medication? For whatever reason, your not allowed to fill your scripts early, and getting more than a 60 day supply would put you in the poorhouse. Also without a thyroid, and being allergic to iodine, where do you go with that scenario? Any ideas? Is there any plant that could be substituted to give you thyroid?

    • Rachel Hill
      September 7, 2022 at 9:54 am

      Hi Laurie, hopefully this answers your question regarding other options than meds:

      The thought about not having the medication I need to literally live and function has crossed my mind too. It’s quite worrying to think about, but as someone who has had severe anxiety previously, I’ve learnt there is nothing to be gained by worrying about this when it likely won’t even happen. HAve you come across the umbrella metaphor? It explains anxiety has like walking around with your umbrella open all the time just in case it might rain… It helps me to put things in to perspective and calm the worrying thoughts.

  • Davie Walker
    November 3, 2021 at 2:22 pm

    I’ve Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. I’m generally okay on 100mg Levothyroxine. I do tend to sleep, on average, 8 to 10 hours a day. My right hand sometimes has a shake, don’t know if that’s related.
    So along with the Hashi’s I have Primary Hyperparathyroidism and Psoriasis. Also Asthma/COPD/Emphysema if that’s relevant. But does the Primary Hyperparathyroidism and Psoriasis have any bearing on my Hypothyroidism?

  • Elizna
    September 26, 2020 at 8:26 pm

    I love your blogs
    Im 28 now
    I’am born without a thyroid gland
    My mother find that out when i was 3 months old.

    I must say I have alot of hyperthyroidism& hypothyroidism symptoms.
    And your blogs learn me alot about my illness
    Thank you x

  • Mary Orsillo
    November 14, 2019 at 1:14 am

    A breath of fresh air reading about other “hypo” patients and their struggles. I sure can relate! Have a great Endo who is trying to help me, frequent blood tests and full panels, at my request. I asked for T4 and T3 to see if it helped with my fatigue…. on 88 mcg levo and 5mcg Cytomel which I was on a yr ago after a thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy. Hard to regulate levels since then ….frustrating….tried Armor Thyroid to no avail also….. Dr says I am swithching too frequently so we need to wait full 8 weeks between changes. In the meantime , sooo fatigued and winded…..up for trying a new combo or NDT…..

  • Nyla
    October 8, 2019 at 8:01 am

    Hi is NDT available without the pig hormones? Is there something else that I could try?
    I’ve been on a very high does of throyxine
    175mg for 20 years, by the way I’m 5 feet 2 and petite build but the weight is creeping up and the low moods not sure if it’s the menopause I’m 52 and feel I need to try something else?

    • Rachel Hill
      October 8, 2019 at 7:43 pm

      Bovine NDT can be found over the counter but it’s said to be much weaker. Have you had a full panel tested to check it you’re converting your T4 to T3?

  • Tanya
    March 5, 2019 at 11:33 am

    Thank you for all of your posts. I had read this and looked it up this am. I switched a month ago to the NDT. I had severe dyspnea on the Synthroid. I am only on 1/4 grain and may try the twice a day dosing before jumping to once daily 1/2 grain. I am extremely sensitive to all medications. Your blog is a daily read and I have your book on my Kindle. Thanks for all that you are doing.

  • Anita Mukherjee
    February 12, 2019 at 4:57 pm

    what is the best way to get gp to change medication…. I am on 50mcg of levothyroxine have been for just over one year now… the last 6 months have been very hard I have been dealing with severe fatigue and exhaustion….. please help, also your book arrives tomorrow

    • Barbara Belland
      July 3, 2022 at 1:54 pm

      The best way I got my doctor to change meds was to “drop him”. I then called around to doctor offices and asked if the doctor prescribed Armour Thyroid, if they said “no” I hung up. I was literally dying on Levothyroxine. Then the dr kept increasing it and I was in and out of ER with terrible heart palps. It was crazy, I had to quit my job. I was coughing continually, getting no sleep and sucking cough drops all day and all night. Then I started coughing up blood. I suspected myself that I had a goiter growing inside and pressing on my windpipe and I was right. (with God’s direction). Within 4 days of taking Armour my symptoms started easing up after a short time I felt like a “new person”.

  • Dianne Cope
    November 13, 2018 at 11:50 am

    Hi Rachel, I met you at a Mind Carniball in September. Please could you advise me.

    After my recent blood test for thyroid function, my doctor says I need to reduce my thyroxine. I’m beside myself. I have CFS and am really struggling. Is there any action I can take like trying to get an appointment with an endocrinologist? I really don’t know where to turn. Sorry to bother you.

    Many thanks in advance.

    Kind regards

    Dianne Cope

    • Rachel Hill
      November 13, 2018 at 2:53 pm

      Hi Dianne – sorry to hear this. I remember you telling me about your fatigue and can imagine the idea of lowering your thyroid medication is scary when you already feel so unwell. What are your free t3 and t4 levels looking like? Hopefully the doctor is lowering the meds based on this and not TSH alone? A referral to an endocrinologist (which your GP can do) may help, but they do tend to favour thyroxine and TSH again. Have you explored a functional doctor? I have a the diagnosis of CFS too (from an endocrinologist) but it ‘disappeared’ once I started seeing a functional medicine practitioner who had me implement more than just thyroid medication alone.

  • Reba Collins
    September 16, 2018 at 9:08 pm

    I am waiting for the first news article, and am going to explore all the ways I can to find more information about Hashimoto’s disease, I was diagnosed with. I take 2 meds and still feel terrible. Thank you for this article.

  • La Donna
    May 22, 2018 at 10:34 am

    Howdy! This is my first visit to your blog. You have done a wonderful job!

  • Lavon Dakeiser
    February 24, 2018 at 6:40 am

    I know I am getting great knowledge every day by reading such great blogs here.


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