Hypothyroidism, also called an underactive thyroid or thyroid disease, is a condition where the thyroid gland does not create enough thyroid hormone/s. The five hormones a healthy thyroid produces are: T1, T2, T3, T4 and Calcitonin. The most important are T3 and T4, with T3 being the most active.
These hormones are needed for every process, every cell and every function within the body, so when they go wrong i.e. are too low, a lot of other stuff goes wrong too! This can include metabolic function, sensitivity to heat and cold intolerance, muscle aches and pains, fatigue, adrenal problems, vitamin deficiencies.. the list goes on. See a list of symptoms here.
The main purpose of thyroid hormones, produced by the thyroid gland, is to ensure the metabolism is running properly.
The metabolism’s job is to produce heat and fuel. Heat to keep us warm and fuel to give us energy. Now, if we don’t have enough of those thyroid hormones I told you about, our metabolism won’t work properly and so can’t provide us with adequate heat and fuel.
Therefore, people with an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) have a slow metabolism, so will have symptoms associated with a slow metabolism, such as cold intolerance (from the lack of heat made) and extreme tiredness and weight gain (from the lack of calories burned to make energy).
Hypothyroidism affects its’ victims differently, as some people report taking their medication each day and feeling fine, whereas other patients report that their medication does not help them, or that it did at one time, but not anymore.
This can be made worse by doctors not listening to their hypothyroid patients’ worries and suggestions about links to other health conditions. Signs that their medication isn’t working well, so incorrect thyroid levels, can be on-going fatigue, muscle aches, mental health issues such as depression, post-natal depression, bi-polar and anxiety, adrenal problems (high/low cortisol), vitamin deficiencies and diagnosis’s of fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome, to name just a few things.
Ultimately, once thyroid levels are correct, which should be a TSH below 2, a Free T3 in the top quarter of the range and a mid-range or a little higher Free T4, then the thyroid is being adequately treated, so most symptoms should start to disappear, but support for other possible problems like vitamin deficiencies and adrenal fatigue will need to be in place until they recover, too. On-going monitoring to maintain good thyroid levels are important, which should also help keep vitamin levels and adrenal gland function in check, too, along with any other associated conditions.
Many thyroid patients feel their GP isn’t sympathetic enough, or willing to run all the tests we need to properly check our thyroid levels – TSH, Free T3 and Free T4. They also report their doctors being unhelpful in regards to considering other medication options, if standard T4-only meds don’t work for them, as well as considering the fact that many other problems or health conditions can be linked to low thyroid function, especially if it’s inadequately treated i.e TSH, Free T3 and Free T4 aren’t kept in the right place within range.
You can find lots more, more-detailed posts on my blog about the many other areas of being hypothyroid, but this post is the general overview.
See also – Help! I’m New To This! if you’re new to the diagnosis of hypothyroidism.
You can click on the hyperlinks in the above post to learn more and see references to information given.
Written by Rachel, The Invisible Hypothyroidism
Rachel is a Thyroid Patient Advocate and Expert with Six 2018 WEGO Health Award Nominations. She is a highly ranked writer appearing in the Top Hypothyroidism Websites and Top Thyroid Websites 2018, and is a qualified Diet and Nutritional Advisor, also currently studying for relevant qualifications and certificates in Life Coaching, Motivational Speaking, Reflexology and more. She has worked with The National Academy of Hypothyroidism, The BBC, The Mighty, Dr. Hedberg, Thyroid UK and ThyroidChange, to name just a few. She is well recognised as a trusted and useful contributor to the thyroid community.